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Exactly. - I was just pointing out that this is a little different than the usual handler, but still needs to do the same saving - just a bit or non-normative text..
And you need to save scratch as well.
The watchdog timers I'm familiar with have code that explicitly resets the watchdog so it never expires - unless something bad happens.
That's probably a different use case, so either way is valid.
On Thu, Jan 28, 2021 at 5:46 PM Paul Donahue <pdonahue@...
This is no more a problem for RNMI than anything else. The S mode handler must save (push) scause/sepc before doing anything that could cause an exception. Then it can handle nested exceptions. Same for M mode. The problem this proposal is solving is that NMI can happen before M mode has a chance to do this, so this proposal has a special cause/epc for that purpose. The first thing the NMI handler must do is save mcause/mepc before doing anything that could cause an exception (and NMI cannot happen before this is complete because NMIs are disabled in this handler).
My concern is that if an RNMI occurs during an exception handler, and the RNMI handler encounters an exception, the exception return point. cause, and prev. priv state is lost - that's fatal.
It's also no different than an exception handler encountering an exception, but it should be noted as something to take into account because an RNMI taken during an interrupt handler doesn't have that problem.
On Thu, Jan 28, 2021 at 4:14 PM Paul Donahue <pdonahue@...
Thank you for pointing out that there are two RNMI vectors: one for NMI and one for exceptions. As you surmised, I missed that but I think that addresses my concern.
On Thu, Jan 28, 2021 at 2:34 PM John Hauser <jh.riscv@...
I think some of the questions and discussion concerning this proposal
have arisen because the proposal is a little too terse. It would
be helpful to have more about the specific use cases that the RNMI
hardware is intended to support, and not support, and why, including
about nested NMIs (whether supported or not). There seems to be an
assumption that the author and readers are already in agreement about
these matters, and that's much too optimistic, I think.
Some of the feedback has concerned the intersection of NMIs with
synchronous exceptions, such as what happens if a synchronous exception
occurs while in an NMI handler. The proposal has this sentence:
RNMI also has an associated exception trap handler address, which
is implementation defined.
If the hart encounters an exception while the `rnmie` bit is
clear, the exception state is written to `mepc` and `mcause`,
`mstatus.mpp` is set to M-mode, and the hart jumps to the RNMI
exception handler address.
But that all went by too quickly for some reviewers, it seems. (It may
also not be adequate in conjuction with nested NMIs.)
Not every reader will immediately intuit the clear distinction you
intend between _interrupt_ and _exception_, especially as even the
RISC-V Privileged Architecture sometimes muddies the two terms.
For example, note that an *interrupt trap* saves the interrupted
instruction address to one of the *Exception* Program Counter CSRs
such as mepc or mnepc, implying that the term _exception_ includes
I urge that we not commit to CSR addresses 0x350-0x353 for the RNMI
As part of the planning for a possible future extension to improve
support for nested hypervisors, a pattern has been tentatively
established for M, S, U, VS, and V2S variants of CSRs, such as mstatus,
sstatus, ustatus, vsstatus, and a future v2sstatus. The M-level
CSR addresses in the range 0x340-0x39F would be among those that can
support the full set of M, S, U, VS, and V2S variants of the same CSR.
But RNMI would never use the VS and V2S slots, and probably not the
U slot either. It would be better to relocate the RNMI CSRs to other,
more constrained addresses, and leave the more flexible locations open
for CSRs that may need them.
To best manage the remaining CSR address space, I propose that the main
responsibility for assigning CSR addresses be given to the new Opcode
and Consistency Review group.
Greg Favor wrote:
> - In mnstatus, shouldn't there also be a bit like the mstatus.MPV bit
> (for when the H extension is implemented and enabled)?
> I'll let hypervisor authors address this.
Greg is correct. When the hypervisor extension is implemented, the
existing 2-bit mstatus.MPP is extended with another bit, mstatus.MPV.
The saved operating mode is fully represented by 3 bits, MPV and MPP
I would suggest allocating mnstatus bit 13 for the MPV-like bit.
(I'd expect these two fields in mnstatus to be named either MPV and
MPP, or MNPV and MNPP.)
In anticipation of a possible future extension for nested hypervisors,
you should also keep bit 14 free for another bit (MPV2).
> rnmie should be settable but not clearable in M-mode to support
> nesting NMIs.
I think, when you lay out exactly, step by step, how nested NMIs would
work, you'll discover that's inadequate. (Or, if I'm wrong, then you
have different plans for how it will work than I can guess, so, again,
it would be good to have this in writing as part of the proposal.)
- John Hauser